They all share many similarities, but two thing set them apart: the ingredients, and cook time.
What is Stock?
Stock is made by simmering animal bone (beef, chicken, lamb, and fish) that usually contains some scraps of protein along with mirepoix (mirepoix: carrots, onions, and celery) in water with a sachet of your favorite herbs. (Sachet: Small sack of herbs and spices used to flavor stocks using cheese cloth). This is cooked for six or more hours on the stove top.
Stock is typically used for sauces, gravies, stews, and soups.
What is Broth?
Broth is made by simmering meat or shells of shrimp, crab or lobster (which usually does not contain bones) with mirepoix (mirepoix: carrots, onions, and celery) in water for a short amount of time, usually under two hours. Unlike stock, traditional broth is usually less seasoned due to the fact you will most likely be using it immediate for a recipe that will have its own season profile.
Broth is used for soups, sauces, and braises (braise: cooking method that uses both wet and dry heats: typically the food is sautéed or seared then finished in a covered pot at low temperature while sitting in liquid)
What is Bone Broth?
Bone broth is the most similar to stock with a few difference. Traditionally the bones and vegetables are roasted in an oven before they are put in a pot with the mirepoix and a sachet. They are then covered with water and simmered anywhere from 10 to 15 hours on a stove top. Then strained for clarity. The longer cooking time allows the collagen-rich gelatin and bone marrow to basically melt into the broth.
Bone Broth can be used for all kinds of cooking or just simply sipped warm like coffee.
Health benefits for drinking Bone Broth
Protect you joints
Keep your collagen strong
Heal Leaky Gut Syndrome
support a healthy immune system
Increase bone strength
Great source of protein
My Bone Broth Method:
Beef Bones (femur and or knuckle) 6-10 piece depending on size. You can get these from your local butcher or most meat departments in grocery stores stock this or you can request them in advance.
1 Large onion
1 stock of leaks
4 large carrots
4 stocks celery
Black peppercorns crushed
Large stock pot
China-man's hat or large sieve
Cheese Cloth (buy on amazon) or clean cotton kitchen towel
Canning jars at least 8 (not shown in photo)
Wash peal and re-wash carrots
Wash Leaks, make sure to separate the layers
Chop vegetables into large chunks. make sure to use the leafy part of the celery it is packed with flavor. (You may see in my photos a spray bottle. This is a simple mixture of one table spoon bleach with one quart of water used for sanitizing the area. It is perfectly safe just let it dry before using the item again).
Prepare you herb sachet. I have used cheese cloth but I have this awesome tool form #Pamperedchef To crush your peppercorn just use the bottom of your pot.
Place the vegetables and meat in roasting pan and roast for one hour at 425 degrees.
Add the bones,vegetables and residual juices to the stock pot and cover with water. Bring to a boil then simmer for up to 8 hours (it has never taken longer but I am making small batches). Add water to keep ingredients covered. Skim off any foam that may collect at the top these are impurities and fat.
You will know you are done when the bone marrow has dissolved out of the bone.
I strain my broth twice. Once with the China-man hat to separate the broth from the ingredients but then I cool the broth (see below for correct cooling method) then I keep it in the frig overnight until the final fat cap has formed. At that time I remove the fat heat the broth again strain it through cheese cloth or a clean cotton kitchen towel. Rather than cool it down a second time I can the both and store it for up to a year. I would say I make bone broth twice a year.
PROPER COOLING OF STOCK
Clean the sink in the kitchen and fill it with clean cold water and ice. Then place the pot of food
in the ice water. Be careful not to let water in the sink mix with food in the pot. If you stir the contents of the pot in the ice water it will help to cool it more quickly.
To use the two-stage cooling method, food must be cooled from 140 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit within two hours and to 41 F or lower within four hours. Using the cooling method ensures that food is cooled quickly and safely. Use a food thermometer to measure the temperature during the cooling period.
A large pot or container of food that is hot should not be placed in the refrigerator or freezer. The hot food can raise the temperature inside the refrigerator/freezer which can be a risk for food already in the appliance.